Digest of SE Asia - E N_American disjunction

liu, zhiwei liu.zhiwei at ENTOM.SLU.SE
Mon Mar 10 16:55:54 CST 1997

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Dear All,

As been requested by some, I am posting a digest on the topic I raised some
time ago. Thank you all for your joining! And best regards.


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From: Dr. David E. Boufford  (e-mail boufford at oeb.harvard.edu)

See:  Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 70: 421-749. 1984 for a series
of papers on this topic by botanists and zoologists.  If you need help with
additional examples from plants, please let me know and I will be glad to
help.  I would be very glad to receive any reprints you have available on
this topic, and I will be very glad to send you reprints, or copies of
papers, on examples in plants if you need them.

From: Dr. Rodham E. Tulloss <ret at pluto.njcc.com>

You should take a look at the fleshy fungi (Agaricales).  It is quite
remarkable in some genera.  There are many
"sister species" that are well documented (for example, in the
beautifully illustrated Japanese literature).  The books of Imazeki,
Hongo, and others will give you a visual feel.  These can be compared
against recent North American field guides, etc.  I work on the
genus Amanita (not like insects, but between 500 and 1000 species worldwide).
While many (perhaps a majority) of agaric taxa are unknown, Japan and
the eastern U.S./Canada are better documented than most regions.

Hongo had a paper some time ago calling attention to some taxa that he
felt had disjunct distribution.  I'd be astonished if the taxa were
really the same species (except in the case of circumpolar distribution),
but the similarities are striking.  For example, the DEEP BLUE Lactarius
indigo was described from the eastern U.S.; but material identified as
this striking species has been collected in Japan.

I will look for the article and send a citation.  I think it is only a
starting point for someone with a deep interest in the disjunctions, but
it gives a clue to what might be found.

>>>Hongo, T. and K. Yokoyama. 1978. Mycofloristic ties of Japan to
        the continents. Mem. Educ. Fac. Shiga Univ. 28: 75-80.

Also, Greg Mueller (at the Field Museum, Chicago) has recently done some
work comparing the genetic make-up of a set of very similar taxa clustered
"around" Amanita flavoconia Atk. (another strikingly colored entity) in
North and Central America and in the Himalayan region (with connections
of forests of Fagaceae stretching across southern China to Japan).

Z. L. Yang in Tuebingen ...(works) ... on the Amanitaceae of SW China.  Of
necessity, he knows many of the species from eastern Asia and has borrowed
material from me to clarify relationships with eastern N. American taxa.
... (The following address (email) will be able to be used to send
messages to Yang Zhuliang: chee-jen.chen at uni-tuebingen.de)

From: Dr. Hans Klompen|( E-mail: klompen.1 at osu.edu)

I did some revisionary work on mange mites (family Sarcoptidae) with one
species distribution that might (I stress might!) fit your request.
Notoedres centrifera was initially described from Ratufa, a SE Asian flying
squirrel.  All subsequent records are from a range of tree squirrels and
flying squirrels in North America (California to New York and many places
in between).  The problem is that the initial record was from a captive
animal in the Netherlands.  This might indicate host switching, although N.
centrifera has never been recorded from Europe.  If you have a good
explanation for this range, let me know, I could not come up with a good

From: Dr. Henrik Enghoff  (E-mail henghoff at zmuc.ku.dk)

I saw your message about SE Asia - E N America patterns on taxacom. I have
found some several examples of this in millipedes and ahve colected several
more from the literature. Please see my papers in J. Biogeography 20: 525-536
(1993) and Cladistics 11: 223-263 (1995) concerning the millipede ones.

From: Dr. Enrico Ricchiardi  (E-mail: alerico at torino.alpcom.it)

I'm currently studying the Trichiinae and Valginae (Cetoniidae, Coleoptera)
species of both sides of North Atlantic. They are separated at genus/species
level. ... I've not got a final cladogram far.

From: Dr. Jun Wen (Email: jwen at lamar.ColoState.edu)

The SE Asia and E.N.America disjunct pattern is quite common in plants.
This was first documented by Linnaeus in one of his pupils' dissertation
research in 1750.  There are several major reviews in plants on that
pattern.  I shall send some of my reprints to you because I cited the major
relevant references.  I published on this pattern in several plant genera,
including Aralia, Panax, Nyssa, Campsis, Symplocarpus and Calycanthus.

*There are also several recent references very relevant to the present topic
cited in Wen's papers (e.g. those by Qiu et al.).

From: Dr James Cokendolpher (E-mail: jccoke at aol.com)

The order Opiliones (Arachnida) has several representatives with this
distribution: Caddo agilis, Caddo pepperella, Acropsopilio boopis, Crosbycus
dasycnemus.  Two papers review this topic (both in Japanese):
Suzuki, S. 1972. [On the discontinuous distribution in some Opiliones]. Acta
Arachnologica, 24(1):1-8.
Suzuki, S., K. Tomishima, S. Yano, and N. Tsurusaki, 1977. [Discontinuous
distributions in relict harvestmen (Opiliones, Arachnida). Acta Arachnologica
(Special Number):121-138.

For further information you might contact Dr. Nobuo Tsurusaki in Japan:
ntsuru at fed.tottori-u.ac.jp

From: Dr. Paul Goetghebeur (Paul.Goetghebeur at rug.ac.be)

A few years ago one of my students has listed all species of
Cyperaceae from SE and E Asian flora's, resulting in a list of 1682
taxa.  We were mainly interested in the Malesian flora, and for that
reason we have analysed their distribution along 6 types (more or
less as was done before by van Steenis (1950, Fl. Males. vol.1 ).
 The sixth group was added by us for 44 species (2.6 %) with their
main area in N Europe, N America, or Siberia.
If you are interested, I can send you the list of those 44 names,
with some details on their distribution.

From: Dr. Daniel J. Bickel (e-mail: danb at amsg.austmus.gov.au)

I have a good example for you from the Diptera: Dolichopodidae: Medetera.
In my revision of the Oriental & Australasian fauna, I note that the aberrans
species group, defined by strong synapomorphies,  is found only in SE Asia,
southern North America & the Neotropics.
I have sent you a copy of the paper (Bickel, 1987: Records of Australian Museum

From: Dr. Z. L. Yang (via chee-jen.chen at uni-tuebingen.de)

... The disjunct distribution of higher plants
(and animals) between (South) East Asia (=EA) and (East) North America (=NA)
has been discussed a lot in the last 50 to 100 years, and there are a lot of
publications in the literature. For the genus Amanita I have found few
species which are distributed at the same time in the both continents. I
must say a few species from East Asia are very colsely related to those from
North America, for exapmle: Amanita frostiana (NA)---- Amanita subfrostiana
sp. nov.(EA); Amanita cinereopannosa (NA) --- Amanita cinereopannosa sensu

(in another message)
I have studied only the taxa of the
genus Amanita from Southwest China (Yunnan, Sichuan and Xizang),
geographically not belonging to SEA. Upto now I have published little which
you are interested in. I haven't finished my dissertation yet. It will
probably take me still about one year to do it. Amanita subfrostiana Z. L.
Yang et Tulloss is not published yet. Amanita cinnereopannosa sensu Yuan is
not well studied because I have only one collection of it. You know it is
not enough to understand the species concept with one collection. You may be
interested to know that Amanita sculpta (known from southern Yunnan of China
, Japan, North Borbeo and Singapur) is very similar to A. westii (Murr.)
Murr. (known from Florida and Texas according to Tulloss & Lewis, in
Mycotaxon 50: 131-138, 1994), and Amanita perpasta (known from South Yunnan
of China, Japan, Malaya und Singapor) is very similar to Amanita alexandri
from Mexico (cf. Guzman, G. 1975: New and interesting species of Agaricales
of Mexico in Beih. Nova Hedwigia 51:99-121).
It is probably also interesting to note that some taxa are distributed at
the both regions you mentioned, but these statements should be used
carefully, especially at species (and lower) level. In the taxonomy of
mushrooms (fungi) many disjunctly distributed species are proved to be
disctinct species after critical studies. Recently I have read a paper
published in Mycologia 88 (5): 776-785, 1996. It might be interesting to you
Geographic distribution patterns of the livingthings in connection with the
continental movements and paleoclimates are very interesting. I have been
interested in this field since several years ago. I have read some papers
and books in this field. Because they are interesting, I list two of them
1. Wu, Z. Y et al., 1983: Chinese natur geography - Plant geography (1).
Science Press, Beijing. 1-125 (in Chinese);
2. Schuster, R. M., 1972: Continental movements.... Bot. Rev. 38 (1): 3-86.

From: Dr. Dan Pittillo <PITTILLO at wpoff.wcu.edu>

I did spend a few months in 1984 in Yunnan as an exchange professor with Yunnan University.  We conducted some field research but the project was sidetracked due to the death of our project leader, funding problems, and other problems of the 1980's.  The little paper* does describe some species that I found interesting and I am putting a copy of the article in the mail to you today.  If you have any questions, the e-mail is a easy way to communicate.--J. Dan Pittillo, Professor of Biology, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, NC 28723 6 Feb. 1997

* 'Tipularia, of the Georgia Botanical Society in 1988 "It All Fits Together" including examples of several dozen "vicariads." ' (by Dr. Scott Ranger <ranger at america.net>)

From: Dr. Bian Tan (btan at CAS.calacademy.org)

Regarding disjunct plant genera, here are some examples that come to mind:
Various Fagaceae
Sageretia (Rhamnaceae)

I hope this helps. Some of these are better examples than others, e.g
Sageretia, Schisandra.

From: Dr. Eric C. Henry    (email:henrye at bcc.orst.edu)

Did you receive any information about marine disjuncts?  Although I am a
marine botanist, I can't think of any marine algae with conspicuous
disjuct distributions between these two areas, but there may be at least one
very striking case among animals: the horseshoe "crab", Limulus, often
called a living fossil. It occurs on the E. coast of the US and also in
Japan; I don't know about further south on the coast of Asia.

I found a couple of WWW sites with information on Limulus.  It seems that
the American species is different from the 3 reported in Asia-- still,
it's an interesting distribution for the genus.


From: Dr. Douglas Yanega (dyanega at denr1.igis.uiuc.edu)

As I recall, there are some tribes/genera of longhorned beetles (family
Cerambycidae) which seem to show this disjunction pattern - it was discussed
in the introductory publication (1961) in the series by E. G. Linsley (and
later with J.A. Chemsak) that form a monograph of the North American
Cerambycidae. It was in the University of California Publications in
Entomology 18: 1-135.

From: Dr. Marc S.M. Sosef (Marc.Sosef at PROSEA.PT.WAU.NL)

You should check upon the Compositae (plants) genus Microseris. Bachman c.s.
have published a lot on it, including DNA research etc. It is mainly North
American, 1 species in Chili and one in Australia (New Zealand? I don't know).

(another message)
Did you already come across the Asteraceae genus Microseris? Most of its
species are in Eastern North America, one in Chili, and one, as far as I can
remember, in Australia. There has been a lot of research on this genus,
including extensive DNA studies, by Bachman and co-workers, both from Germany
and from the University of Amsterdam here in the Netherlands. Sorry, but I
don't have any references at hand, but these should be traceble through Kew
Records or other databases. Please contact me if you fail to trace them*.

* the papers can be traced through BIOSYS database.

From: Dr. Hendrik Segers (E-mail: Hendrik.Segers at rug.ac.be)

Regarding your request for information on SEA-ENA disjunctions, I now
recall a case which may be of interest to you: it concerns a rotifer
(Rotifera: Lecanidae: Lecane satyrus Harring & Myers, 1926), which is not
uncommon in ENA, and has been found once in Japan. It should be noted that
research on this group has been little profound in SEA, hence it may be
more common there. The species is morphologically unmistakable, and
extremely peculiar. Recently (Segers 1996: Hydrobiologia 323: 169-197), I
hypothesized that the Japanese record conserned an introduction, but I'm
not so sure anymore.

From: Dr. Monique Reed (monique at bio.tamu.edu)

A very quick check of my notes suggests some plant genera with
Asian-U.S. disjunct distributions.  You can find numbers of species
in Mabberley's _The Plant Book_.

Apocynaceae--Amsonia, Trachelospermum
--Campsis, Catalpa
Magnoliaceae--Liriodendron, Magnolia

If I think of any more, shall I send them to you?  This is a topic
very interesting to me.  If you ever compile a definitive list of
taxa, I would like very much to see it.

From: Dr. Jeannette Ridder-Numan (ridder at rulrhb.leideninuv.nl)

I read your e-mail message on TAXACOM, and wondered whether it would be
interesting to read something about the Boreotropics hypothesis in,
Lavin, M. (1995). Tribe Robinieae and allies; model groups for assessing
early tertiary northern latitude diversification of tropical legumes.
In: M.Crisp & J.J. Doyle (eds.). Advances in Legumes Systematics 7:
Phylogeny, pp.141-160. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Lavin, M. and Luckow, M (1993). Origins and relationships of tropical
North America in the contextn of the boreotropics hypothesis. Amer. J.
Bot.80: 1-14.
I cited their work in my thesis on the cladistic biogeography of a
legumes genus in SE Asia. If you have any more questions, don't heistate
to e-mail me.

My original posters (e-mail: liu.zhiwei at entom.slu.se)

I am interested in the Southeast Asia - Eastern North American disjunction
of various groups of organisms (at all hiearchical levels, species, geneus,
family ...) . We have been working on the historical biogeography of
Ibaliidae, an old family of Cynipoidea, Hymenoptera, Insecta (Nordlander,
Liu & Ronquist 1996, Syst. Ent. (21):151-166). The distribution of this
small family has a disjunct distribution very similar to that of the
Caddisfly genus Wormaldia as documented in Ross's well known study (Ross
1974). The phenomenon of SE Asia - E N_American disjunction has long been
noticed, e.g. the distribution of the tuliptree genus Liriodendron. And a
forthcoming study of mine will also reveal a similar pattern. I feel
confident that some of you have more examples of this particular pattern. I
shall very much appreciate relevant information on this topic. Messages
could be delivered to my E-mail address directly or to the list, depending
on the senders' preference. I will come up later with a brief statistic
report if I receive a significant number of examples.

(in another poster)
Three weeks ago, I posted a request for help with information on SE Asian &
E. North American disjunction. Here I want to express my sincere thanks to
all those of you who replied.

As some of us know, this has been a century - old topic ever since
Linnaeus'time. Thanks to the helps of many of you, I now have been able to
trace quite a number of works on the topic. Most of the works are on
floristic similarities. Although the phenomenon of SEA & ENA disjunction
also occurs in other groups , e.g fungi, millipedes, and insects, such works
appear to be generally dispropotionately lacking.

Among the available such studies, only a small fraction  offers explicit
phylogenetic inferences, which are essential for analyzing vicariance
patterns. The limited information, however, leads to an interesting, though
very preliminary, generalization  that components of most vacariant taxa
(above species level) in the concerned areas do not form monophyletic
lineages respectively, indicating multiple origins.

I need to dig more into the topic to be able to come up with a better
picture. I would be happy to discuss the topic with those of you who are
interested, and be happy to receive further information on the topic in the
future, particularly phylogenetic studies of related taxa. Again I want to
thank you all for sharing the interest!

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Zhiwei LIU
Department of Entomology
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Box 7044, S-750 07 Uppsala
Tel: 46 18 672874
Fax: 46 18 672890
E-mail: liu.zhiwei at entom.slu.se


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