Indirect reference

John McNeill johnmn at COMPUSERVE.COM
Fri May 22 19:19:24 CDT 1998

Hidetoshi Nagamasu wrote:

>I appreciate any comments to the following taxonomic question: =

> =

>Kudo (1925) published many new names for plants in the Table showing the=
>distribution in Yezo, Japan,  without description, basionym nor direct
reference to
>their place of valid publication. =

> =

>For the new combination, he just cited the authors validly published the=

>basionym in parenthesis as usual author citation, for example: =

> >Filipendula ciliata (Koidz.) Kudo Sanguisorba japonensis (Makino) Kudo=

>Can these new combinations be regarded as validly published with indirec=
> references of previously and effectively published description or
>defined in ICBN Tokyo Code Art. 32.5?

The key article in the ICBN is Art. 33.2 which reads:

"33.2. A new combination, or an avowed substitute (nomen novum), publishe=
on or after 1 January 1953, for a previously and validly published name i=
not validly published unless its basionym (name- bringing or
epithet-bringing synonym) or the replaced synonym (when a new name is
proposed) is clearly indicated and a full and direct reference given to i=
author and place of valid publication with page or plate reference and

As Kudo's work was published in 1925, i.e. before 1 January 1953, the cle=
ar understanding is that his new combinations do NOT require that the
basion=3D ym be "clearly indicated" and a "full and direct reference give=
=2E...".  =3D

Very, very many new combinations published in older works (e.g. in the la=
te 18th & 19th centuries) are in the form used by Kudo and so long as the=
=3D is no ambiguity, these are validly published.

As Hidetoshi Nagamasu notes, Art. 32.5 provides a definition of what
"indirect reference" means ("32.5. An indirect reference is a clear
indication, by the citation of the author's name or in some other way, th=
a previously and effectively published description or diagnosis applies")=
=2E =

Kudo's action would normal=3D ly meet this definition (the odd exception
might be when an earlier author used the same epithet under more than one=

name applying to closely relate=3D d genera).

John McNeill

  John McNeill, Director Emeritus, Royal Ontario Museum,
  100 Queen's Park, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 2C6, Canada.
  [Tel. and fax # 416-586-5744]  e-mail:

  From 19 April - 5 June 1998: at Royal Botanic Garden, Inverleith Row,
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