vincenma at MUOHIO.EDU
Tue Apr 24 07:35:27 CDT 2001
Richard E. Schultes, 86, Authority on Hallucinogenic Plants, Dies
By JONATHAN KANDELL in N.Y. Times - April 13th, 2001
Richard Evans Schultes, a swashbuckling scientist and influential Harvard
University educator who was widely considered the preeminent authority on
hallucinogenic and medicinal plants, died on Tuesday in Boston. He was 86
and lived in Waltham, a Boston suburb.
Dr. Schultes (pronounced SHULL- tees) was often called the father of
ethnobotany, the field that studies the relationship between native cultures
and their use of plants. Over decades of research, mainly in Colombia's
Amazon region, he documented the use of more than 2,000 medicinal plants
among Indians of a dozen tribes, many of whom had never seen a white man
"I do not believe in hostile Indians," Dr. Schultes was quoted as saying in
a 1992 article about him in The New Yorker by E. J. Kahn Jr. "All that is
required to bring out their gentlemanliness is reciprocal gentlemanliness."
Tall, muscular, wearing a pith helmet, he hiked and paddled through Amazonia
for months at a time. He collected more than 24,000 plant specimens. More
than 120 species bear his name, as does a 2.2 million-acre tract of
protected rain forest in Colombia, Sector Schultes, which the government
there set aside in 1986.
"The last of the great plant explorers in the Victorian tradition," was the
way one of his former students, Wade Davis, described him in his 1985
best-selling book, "The Serpent and the Rainbow" (Simon & Schuster).
But more than a real-life Indiana Jones, Dr. Schultes was a pioneering
conservationist who raised alarms in the 1960's - long before
environmentalism became a worldwide concern - that the rain forests and
their native cultures were in danger of disappearing under the onslaught of
modern industry and agriculture. He reminded his Harvard students that more
than 90 tribes had become extinct in Brazil alone over the first
three-quarters of the 20th century.
"He believed ours would be the last generation fortunate enough to be able
to live and work among these tribes as he had," wrote one of Dr. Schultes's
disciples, Mark J. Plotkin, in "Tales of a Shaman's Apprentice," (Viking,
1993), "to experience their traditional way of life firsthand, and to record
their vast ethnobotanical knowledge before the plant species - or the people
who used them - succumbed to the march of progress."
Dr. Schultes's research into plants that produced hallucinogens like peyote
and ayahuasca made some of his books cult favorites among youthful drug
experimenters in the 1960's. His findings also influenced cultural icons
like Aldous Huxley, William Burroughs and Carlos Castaneda, writers who
considered hallucinogens as the gateways to self-discovery.
Dr. Schultes disdained these self- appointed prophets of an inner reality.
He scathingly dismissed Timothy Leary, the drug guru of the 1960's who also
taught at Harvard, for being so little versed in hallucinogenic species that
he misspelled the Latin names of the plants.
According to a 1996 article in The Los Angeles Times, when Mr. Burroughs
once described a psychedelic trip as an earth-shaking metaphysical
experience, Dr. Schultes's response was, "That's funny, Bill, all I saw was
Dr. Schultes may have contributed to the psychedelic era with his
ethnobotanical discoveries, but to him these were the sacred plants of
Indians that should be studied for their medicinal value. He was in many
ways a throwback to an earlier epoch of scientific research. He had no
interest in publicity or self-promotion. Rather than confine himself to a
narrow specialty, he was a generalist who crisscrossed several scientific
Dr. Schultes taught more by personal example than by the use of forceful
intellect. His lecture room resembled an ethnographic museum, with huge maps
of Amazonia, native dance costumes, demon masks, opium pipes, dried
specimens of medicinal and hallucinogenic plants, and a blowgun for poison-
tipped darts, whose use he sometimes gingerly demonstrated in class.
His former student, Dr. Plotkin, recalled a lecture in which the professor
showed slides of masked dancers in the Amazon under the influence of a
hallucinogenic potion. Referring to himself, Dr. Schultes told the class:
"The one on the left has a Harvard degree.
Next slide please."
Richard Evans Schultes traced his fascination with the South American rain
forests to the fantasies evoked while he was bedridden as a child. He was
born on Jan. 12, 1915, in Boston, where his father was a plumber and his
mother was a homemaker. Confined to his room for months with a stomach
ailment when he was about 5 years old, he listened enraptured to excerpts
read to him by his parents from "Notes of a Botanist on the Amazon and the
Andes," a travel diary kept by the 19th century British naturalist Richard
Spruce. The impression left by those passages was so powerful that the boy
decided to follow in Spruce's footsteps.
Receiving a full scholarship to Harvard, Mr. Schultes wrote an undergraduate
paper on the mind-altering properties of peyote, based on research he
undertook with Kiowa Indians in Oklahoma who ingested the hallucinogen in
ceremonies to commune with their ancestors. For his doctoral thesis, also at
Harvard, he chose the plants used by the Indians of Oaxaca, a southern state
of Mexico. In his research there, he came across a species of morning glory
seeds that contained a natural form of LSD.
In 1941, Dr. Schultes traveled to the Colombian Amazon, where he would spend
most of his field research, and an area Spruce had studied. At first, Dr.
Schultes concentrated on plants that produced curare. This substance, used
by Indians as a fast-dissipating poison to hunt prey, also proved to be
vital as a muscle-relaxant during major surgery in hospitals. The professor
identified more than 70 plant species from which the Indians extracted
Dr. Schultes was deep in the Colombian rain forest when news of Pearl Harbor
reached him more than a week after the Japanese attack. He immediately made
his way back to Bogotá, the Colombian capital, and visited the United States
Embassy to enlist in the armed forces. But the United States government
decided his World War II services would be much more valuable as a botanist
doing research on natural rubber, particularly since the Japanese occupied
the Malayan plantations that accounted for much of the world's rubber
Dr. Schultes soon became the leading expert in the field, collecting and
studying more than 3,500 specimens of Hevea, the tree family that produces
the latex from which rubber is made.
Throughout the 1940's and until the early 1950's, Dr. Schultes lived almost
continuously in the South American rain forests, with only brief visits to
the United States. On his journeys through the tropics, he traveled lightly.
He navigated scores of tributaries of the Amazon River, using an aluminum
canoe that he could handle himself, though he usually hired Indians as
paddlers and guides.
His supplies included a single change of clothing, a camera and film, a
hammock and blanket and a machete and clippers for plant collecting. For
food, he carried only cans of instant coffee and Boston baked beans,
preferring to rely on food offered by his Indian hosts. This included the
ground manioc roots that were their staple, fish, wild game, insect grubs,
fruit and chicha, a drink made from fruits chewed and fermented by spittle.
His medicine kit consisted of vitamins, antibiotics and morphine - in case
he broke a limb and had to be transported for days before he could receive
To collect and preserve plant specimens, Dr. Schultes devised a method field
researchers still use today. He soaked his plants in formaldehyde diluted
with water and then pressed them between newspaper sheets. "On a good day,
out in the forest, Schultes would collect 20 or 30 specimens that he thought
merited further attention," Mr. Kahn wrote in The New Yorker. "Along a
riverbank, where foraging was easier, he sometimes bagged 80 or 90."
Often Dr. Schultes would consult local Indian shamans about the properties
of these species. A number of these medicinal plants now carry his name,
including, among many others, Pouroma schultesii, a bark whose ashes are
used to treat ulcers, Piper schultesii, a stem brewed as a tea to relieve
tubercular coughs, and Hiraea schultesii, leaves whose soakings are used to
Dr. Schultes asserted that contrary to popular conceptions, Indian shamans
were eager to share their medical secrets with outsiders. But "time is
running out," he warned in a 1994 article in the journal The Sciences,
asserting, "The Indians' botanical knowledge is disappearing even faster
than the plants themselves."
In 1953, Dr. Schultes moved back to the United States as a professor and
botanical researcher and curator at Harvard. Six years later, he married
Dorothy Crawford McNeil, an opera soprano who performed in Europe and the
United States. His wife survives him, as do their three children, Richard
Evans Schultes II, a corporate executive; Alexandra Ames Schultes Wilson, a
physician; and her twin, Neil Parker Schultes, a molecular geneticist.
Dr. Schultes, who retired from Harvard in 1985, published 10 books and more
than 450 scientific articles. For 18 years, beginning in 1962, he edited the
scientific journal Economic Botany, and over much of the same period, he
served as an active member of the editorial boards of Horticulture, Social
Pharmacology, the Journal of Latin American Folklore and other publications.
Among numerous awards, he received the 1992 gold medal of the Linnean
Society of London, which is often equated to a Nobel Prize for botany.
Dr. Michael A. Vincent, Curator
W.S. Turrell Herbarium (MU)
Department of Botany
Oxford, Ohio 45056 USA
Email: Vincenma at muohio.edu
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