Electronic library

Robert A. (Bob) Morris ram at CS.UMB.EDU
Wed Dec 19 21:29:56 CST 2001

There's no short answer. For many uses, the long answer(s) are complex
enough that Stanford University has an entire host and web site
http://fairuse.stanford.edu dedicated to the issue, including many
links to other places. The Stanford site deals with US law, and
although there are strong copyright treaties, each country may
differ. http://pgw.org/sacfo/faire_use.html seems to be devoted to the
question for ZA.

In the US, and it appears also in ZA, an individual who makes a single
copy of an article or small portion of a book is making fair use if it
is entirely for their own use, probably even if that use is part of
their job. U.S. universities long since have
stopped allowing professors to make multiple copies of anything for
their classes. Instead, students must buy either from a private copy
organization or a university copy center, both of which pay the
required copyright fees to CCC and add it to the charge. Few
commercial copy centers would make a copy of an entire book for

Copies made in the course of your work may be a more gray area,
although I believe when that work is scholarly research and not for
profit, most US courts find that fair use.

I'm not a lawyer, much less a South African lawyer, but my guess is
that you are making fair use.

Riaan H. Stals writes:
 > Date:         Wed, 19 Dec 2001 23:38:36 +0200
 > From: "Riaan H. Stals" <VREHRS at PLANT5.AGRIC.ZA>
 > To: TAXACOM at usobi.org
 > Subject:      Re: Electronic library
 > On 19 Dec 2001 at 16:29, Robert A. (Bob) Morris wrote:
 > > In fact, you will usually also see an article
 > > serial number and a fee that is to be paid to the Copyright Clearance
 > > Center if you make a copy of the article that is not deemed fair use
 > > (e.g. to circulate to lots of other people).
 > Thank you for pointing this out. Here is darkest Africa I have frequently worried about
 > me not paying the (for our currency) exorbitant fee to CCC when making copies for
 > personal or work use. Can you perhaps elaborate on what the CCC considers "fair
 > use", as I have not before noticed such a "clause" on the CCC page in journals.
 > Greetings,
 > -------------
 > South African National Collection of Insects
 > ARC - Plant  Protection  Research  Institute
 > Private Bag X134  Pretoria 0002 South Africa
 > Voice +27-12-323-8540    Fax +27-12-325-6998

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