Karen Wilson Karen.Wilson at RBGSYD.NSW.GOV.AU
Sun Sep 7 15:38:12 CDT 2003

Some botanists have used what seem to me informative and intuitive
'visual aids' in synonymy lists along the lines suggested by Geoff.
Namely, they have used the '=' and the 'equivalence' symbols to
indicate respectively heterotypic /subjective /taxonomic synonyms versus
homotypic /objective /nomenclatural synonyms.

Botanists also commonly use the format  [... auct. non ... :  ...] for
misapplied names, e.g. '[Cyperus exul auct. non R. Br.: Bentham (1978),
Smith (1922), Bloggs (1999)]' to indicate the original author Brown, and
those who subsequently misapplied his name.

Karen W.

Karen L. Wilson
Special Botanist
Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney
Mrs Macquaries Road

Phone: +61-2-9231 8137
Fax: +61-2-9251 7231
Email: karen.wilson at (if not working, use
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>>> Geoff Read < at NIWA.CO.NZ> 6/09/2003 15:43:12 >>>
Thomas G. Lammers, Ph.D. wrote:
> Wow.  Arrows???
> Wouldn't just be a LOT easier to adopt the botanical style of author
> citation, e.g., Penstemon hirsutus (L.) Willd.?

Nah. Too cryptic. I like the visual aids.

As he's used them they're just like bullet point markers - a standard
technique everyone uses elsewhere to do lists. Why not in big
synonymies?  And
it was a nice touch to make the symbols mean something.

  Geoff Read < at>

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