Opposite of teneral?

pierre.deleporte at UNIV-RENNES1.FR pierre.deleporte at UNIV-RENNES1.FR
Thu Jun 9 12:36:00 CDT 2005

Thanks Thomas, quite enlightening.

The cockroaches I'm studying show regular mating between hardened males and
teneral females, and we controlled that these matings are quite fertile.


according to "Pape, Thomas" <TPape at SNM.KU.DK>:

> As can be read in the online Medical Dictionary:
> http://www.books.md/T/dic/teneral.php , the term "teneral" comes from the
> Latin Tener, teneris, which means tender or delicate. But it is not
> restricted to eclosed imagines nor to the order Neuroptera.
> All arthropods have an exoskeleton and therefore moult. Immediately after
> ecdysis the cuticle is still soft, which allows it to expand and the animal
> grows. The soft cuticle will harden to better serve its purpose of an
> exoskeleton. This hardening [by way of cross-linking proteins] is called
> sclerotization, and the teneral period lasts until the hardening is
> finished.
> Sexual maturity is not involved in defining the teneral period. Also
> juveniles moult.
> I would say that the opposite of "teneral" is "hardened".
> In the specific case of the ocelli becoming dark, it is through the
> development of the eye-pigment, not through sclerotization or hardening.
> Thomas Pape
> The Natural History Museum of Denmark

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