Holotype fragment (botany)

ralf becker r.h.becker at READING.AC.UK
Mon Jan 16 19:06:39 CST 2006

Richard Jensen wrote:
I don't believe the code forbids multiple specimens from the same
individual, as
long as they are made by the same person at the same time.  For example, I
believe I could have a holotype for an oak consisting of two twigs, one with
leaves and no acorns, the other with leaves and acorns.  They could be
on a single sheet or be mounted on separate sheets "clearly" marked as the
holotype series.  The important point would be that the two specimens were
a single gathering by the same collector.

Hallo Richard.
I thing you mixed up (on a Monday) specimens and individuals.
A type consists, of a single specimen that may contain different parts or
individuals. The specimen can be mounted on different sheets or/and stored
in bottles etc; so long it is correct labelled.

The term "type series" does not exist.

My question or thought was: Why does the code not allow a multiple
collection from the same individual at different times of the year so one
has a type with all stages (e.g. fruit, flower).

8.2. For the purpose of typification a specimen is a gathering, or part of a
gathering, of a single species or infraspecific taxon made at one time,
disregarding admixtures (see Art. 9.12). It may consist of a single plant,
parts of one or several plants, or of multiple small plants. A specimen is
usually mounted on a single herbarium sheet or in an equivalent preparation,
such as a box, packet, jar or microscope slide.

Ex. 1. "Echinocereus sanpedroensis" (Raudonat & Rischer in
Echinocereenfreund 8(4): 91-92. 1995) was based on a "holotype" consisting
of a complete plant with roots, a detached branch, an entire flower, a
flower cut in halves, and two fruits, which according to the label were
taken from the same cultivated individual at different times and preserved,
in alcohol, in a single jar. This material belongs to more than one
gathering and cannot be accepted as a type. Raudonat & Rischer's name is not
validly published under Art. 37.2.

Ex. 3. The holotype specimen of Johannesteijsmannia magnifica J. Dransf.,
Dransfield 862 (K), consists of a leaf mounted on five herbarium sheets, an
inflorescence and infructescence in a box, and liquid-preserved material in
a bottle.
Ralf Becker

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