Holotype fragment (botany) [ Scanned for viruses ]

Paul Kirk p.kirk at CABI.ORG
Mon Jan 16 19:24:58 CST 2006

My question would be how does the Code define 'time' - perhaps the Editorial Committee (who recently completed their work in St Louis) should read 'A Briefer History of Time' (lighter reading than 'A Brief History of Time') ... ;-)
Seriously though, it is assumed to be a single day, which presumably prevents just before and just after midnight gatherings in northern and southern latitudes where their is 24 hour daylight for parts of the year.
If unintentional mixtures can be dealt with through existing provisions in the Code let the person who designates the holotype decide what it comprises and use the Code to tidy up the few mistakes which are made. Far simpler than having complicated rules on what a gathering can be and what it cannot be.
Dr Paul M. Kirk 
CABI Bioscience 
Bakeham Lane 
Surrey TW20 9TY 
tel. (+44) (0)1491 829023, fax (+44) (0)1491 829100, email p.kirk at cabi.org 
www.cabi-bioscience.org; www.indexfungorum.org  


From: Taxacom Discussion List on behalf of ralf becker
Sent: Mon 16/01/2006 19:06
Subject: Re: [TAXACOM] Holotype fragment (botany) [ Scanned for viruses ]

Richard Jensen wrote:
I don't believe the code forbids multiple specimens from the same
individual, as
long as they are made by the same person at the same time.  For example, I
believe I could have a holotype for an oak consisting of two twigs, one with
leaves and no acorns, the other with leaves and acorns.  They could be
on a single sheet or be mounted on separate sheets "clearly" marked as the
holotype series.  The important point would be that the two specimens were
a single gathering by the same collector.

Hallo Richard.
I thing you mixed up (on a Monday) specimens and individuals.
A type consists, of a single specimen that may contain different parts or
individuals. The specimen can be mounted on different sheets or/and stored
in bottles etc; so long it is correct labelled.

The term "type series" does not exist.

My question or thought was: Why does the code not allow a multiple
collection from the same individual at different times of the year so one
has a type with all stages (e.g. fruit, flower).

8.2. For the purpose of typification a specimen is a gathering, or part of a
gathering, of a single species or infraspecific taxon made at one time,
disregarding admixtures (see Art. 9.12). It may consist of a single plant,
parts of one or several plants, or of multiple small plants. A specimen is
usually mounted on a single herbarium sheet or in an equivalent preparation,
such as a box, packet, jar or microscope slide.

Ex. 1. "Echinocereus sanpedroensis" (Raudonat & Rischer in
Echinocereenfreund 8(4): 91-92. 1995) was based on a "holotype" consisting
of a complete plant with roots, a detached branch, an entire flower, a
flower cut in halves, and two fruits, which according to the label were
taken from the same cultivated individual at different times and preserved,
in alcohol, in a single jar. This material belongs to more than one
gathering and cannot be accepted as a type. Raudonat & Rischer's name is not
validly published under Art. 37.2.

Ex. 3. The holotype specimen of Johannesteijsmannia magnifica J. Dransf.,
Dransfield 862 (K), consists of a leaf mounted on five herbarium sheets, an
inflorescence and infructescence in a box, and liquid-preserved material in
a bottle.
Ralf Becker

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