Holotype fragment (botany)

Richard Jensen rjensen at SAINTMARYS.EDU
Mon Jan 16 14:37:25 CST 2006

Hello Ralf,

First, I didn't address the point about collecting from the same plant at
different times because that topic had already been covered.  As Tom Lammers
reiterated in a message earlier today (Monday), the rule is insurance against
confusion - the collector may mistakenly collect the fruits from the wrong
tree.  I think that is sufficient reason to have such a rule.

Second, I don't think I mixed up individuals and specimens - as I noted last
week, the code makes no reference to individuals, just to elements and

Finally, I did not mean to imply that the code recognizes a "holotype series."
All I meant was that the holotype could comprise a series (set would have been a
better word to use) of properly identified sheets.


Dick J

ralf becker wrote:

> Richard Jensen wrote:
> I don't believe the code forbids multiple specimens from the same
> individual, as
> long as they are made by the same person at the same time.  For example, I
> believe I could have a holotype for an oak consisting of two twigs, one with
> leaves and no acorns, the other with leaves and acorns.  They could be
> mounted
> on a single sheet or be mounted on separate sheets "clearly" marked as the
> holotype series.  The important point would be that the two specimens were
> from
> a single gathering by the same collector.
> Hallo Richard.
> I thing you mixed up (on a Monday) specimens and individuals.
> A type consists, of a single specimen that may contain different parts or
> individuals. The specimen can be mounted on different sheets or/and stored
> in bottles etc; so long it is correct labelled.
> The term "type series" does not exist.
> My question or thought was: Why does the code not allow a multiple
> collection from the same individual at different times of the year so one
> has a type with all stages (e.g. fruit, flower).
> 8.2. For the purpose of typification a specimen is a gathering, or part of a
> gathering, of a single species or infraspecific taxon made at one time,
> disregarding admixtures (see Art. 9.12). It may consist of a single plant,
> parts of one or several plants, or of multiple small plants. A specimen is
> usually mounted on a single herbarium sheet or in an equivalent preparation,
> such as a box, packet, jar or microscope slide.
> Ex. 1. "Echinocereus sanpedroensis" (Raudonat & Rischer in
> Echinocereenfreund 8(4): 91-92. 1995) was based on a "holotype" consisting
> of a complete plant with roots, a detached branch, an entire flower, a
> flower cut in halves, and two fruits, which according to the label were
> taken from the same cultivated individual at different times and preserved,
> in alcohol, in a single jar. This material belongs to more than one
> gathering and cannot be accepted as a type. Raudonat & Rischer's name is not
> validly published under Art. 37.2.
> Ex. 3. The holotype specimen of Johannesteijsmannia magnifica J. Dransf.,
> Dransfield 862 (K), consists of a leaf mounted on five herbarium sheets, an
> inflorescence and infructescence in a box, and liquid-preserved material in
> a bottle.
> Regards
> Ralf Becker

Richard J. Jensen              | tel: 574-284-4674
Department of Biology      | fax: 574-284-4716
Saint Mary's College         | e-mail: rjensen at saintmarys.edu
Notre Dame, IN 46556    | http://www.saintmarys.edu/~rjensen

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