[Taxacom] Nothofagus (Chile-New Zealand distributions)

Don.Colless at csiro.au Don.Colless at csiro.au
Mon Jul 26 22:02:06 CDT 2010


There are many taxa (mainly genera) of the "Lower" (i.e. ancient) Diptera that occur in SE Australia, New Zealand (some), and Chile-Patagonia - and not in the northern hemisphere. Trans-ocean dispersal seems extremely improbable, when compared with Gondwanan vicariance. Lars Brundin even made a detailed cladistic analysis of a single subfamily of Chironomidae and demonstrated extremely convincing patterns.   
 
Donald H. Colless
CSIRO Div of Entomology
GPO Box 1700
Canberra 2601
don.colless at csiro.au
tuz li munz est miens envirun

________________________________________
From: taxacom-bounces at mailman.nhm.ku.edu [taxacom-bounces at mailman.nhm.ku.edu] On Behalf Of Kenneth Kinman [kennethkinman at webtv.net]
Sent: 27 July 2010 00:33
To: taxacom at mailman.nhm.ku.edu
Subject: [Taxacom] Nothofagus (Chile-New Zealand distributions)

 Dear All,
        Question:  If a large Nothofagus tree (with
ripening fruit attached), or an island-like clump of a number of such
trees, floated in fast-moving currents from Chile to New Zealand, would
some of the ectomycorrhizae in their roots survive the journey?  If so,
such dispersal of whole trees would preserve the symbiosis. The fruits
release their seeds and the fungus (or its spores) is also there to
continue the symbiosis in New Zealand.  Nothofagus driftwood is known to
have floated from South America to Tasmania, so the shorter trip to New
Zealand would presumably be an even less rare event.
             --------Ken

----------------------------------------------
buyck at mnhn.fr wrote:
Dear taxacom-botanists,
There is one element missing in the discussion of Nothofagus and it
seems very essential to me : Nothofagus is an obligatory symbiotic tree
with specific terrestrial, ectomycorrhizal fungi. Seed dispersal over
long distances may have happened and even germination, but subsequent
development of the plant is very unlikely without the specific fungal
symbionts being present. You can not discuss the dispersal of a
symbiosis and completely ignore the evolutionary history of (one or more
of) the implicated partner(s). One publication that briefly discusses
this element is Pirozynski KA. 1983. Pacific Mycogeography: an
appraisal. Australian. Journal of Botany Supplementary Series 10:
137–159
bart


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