[Taxacom] Clarification of Code's Article. 13.1.2

Francisco Welter-Schultes fwelter at gwdg.de
Sat Oct 20 08:15:01 CDT 2012

Without seeing the original source Fittkau 1962 it is very difficult to
judge this case.
For example, what do you mean by saying "citing a bibliographic reference:
syn P. monilis Tokunaga 1937"?

Does this mean that
A - a bibliographical reference is cited with a description for P.
monilis, which is stated to apply also to A. americana?

B - you interpret just the addition of a synonym "P. monilis Tokunaga
1937" as a bibliographical reference?

C - you have missed to report important additional information (and this
is usually why it would be good if we could look at the original source).

A - in this case the description would probably not be differential, if it
referred to P. monilis Tokunaga 1937 and if this is an available name.
Because, if it referred to P. monilis, then the description could not
differentiate between P. monilis and A. americana.

B - "P. monilis Tokunaga 1937" is a taxonomic name, even if it referred to
a nomen nudum. Standing along this is not a bibliographical reference.
Authorship and year in such a citation are set individually behind the
name of the species following the conventions (in the case of a nomen
nudum, or a name cited before the Code was in force) and the rules of the
Code (in the case of an available name after the Code was in force) for
authorships and for dates, not because the author intended to give a
reference to a work. It does not mean that the work was definitely
authored by Tokunaga and that it had definitely 1937 as its
bibliographical date of publication. If it was an available name cited in
1962, the authorship was selected because Tokunaga was regarded as the
authority having established the name, presumably under the rules of the
second edition of the ICZN Code. The date 1937 was selected because this
was regarded as the true date when the name was established. Citing a
synonym alone does not satisfy the requirements of providing a
bibliographical reference.

C - if Fittkau added for example a page number behind Tokunaga 1937, then
the author/year combination after the name would turn into a reference
that was meant in a bibliographical sense. Then Art. 13.1.2 could be
applied, but see A.

In cases A and B the name A. americana was probably not made available.


> Clarification of Code's Article. 13.1.2
> I would like to determine if the following scenario results in an
> available or unavailable name.
> So far name satisfies Article 11 which leads me to Article 13.
> A new species A. americana is proposed by Fittkau 1962 but without a
> description and no type selected, instead citing a bibliographic
> reference: syn P. monilis Tokunaga 1937. Under this name a description is
> given, but has since been pointed out that the specimens listed as
> ?examined (122) consist of 2 possibly 3 species with insufficient
> taxonomic resolution to accurately determine if the description represents
> one species (as interpreted now) or more. The specimens are stored in
> alcohol with only a third remaining in the Museum's collection. It has
> also been concluded that the specimens have deteriorated to the point that
> identifying them would be very difficult. In a recent review of the
> species from Japan, it was decided to use available synonyms to describe
> two closely related species.
> Only article 13.1.2 applies which states " be accompanied by a
> bibliographic reference to such a published statement" [purported to
> differentiate the taxon]. My interpretation of "differentiate" is to
> separate from other species, as oppose to  describe. There is no
> definition given so it leaves me indoubt on how to apply  Article 13.1.2
> in this situation.
> Supplementing on this example, if the cited reference had listed a jr.
> syn. which has since been determined to be a valid separate species, so
> that the single description includes two species, would that  change the
> outcome regarding the name A. americana as an available name?
> Bohdan
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Francisco Welter-Schultes
Zoologisches Institut, Berliner Str. 28, D-37073 Goettingen
Phone +49 551 395536

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