[Taxacom] Type specimen

Chris Thompson xelaalex at cox.net
Fri May 17 20:40:07 CDT 2013


Yes, Stephen,

Linnaeus did describe 5 variants of his Homo sapiens and did not indicate 
which was the typical form.

Look at the original description:

Sapiens.     1. [diagnosis] followed by some references.

then [alpha] - Americanus
         [beta] - Europaeus
         [gamma] - Asiaticus
         [delta] - Afer
         [epsilon] - Monstrosus

First one can argue whether these are "subspecies" or not, but what ever 
they are they are based on types, that is, specimens that Linnaeus observed 
or knew from the literature.

AND there are all equally available for lectotype designation of the 
species. Hence, the first reviser can select any and then restrict the name 
accordingly.

As for the statement about "no type series ..." ALL available / valid 
descriptions have type specimens. If they did not, then the description 
would be of an hypothetical concept and exclude from Zoological Nomenclature 
(ICZN). The issue for some descriptions, however, is the determination of 
the type series. Which as here can be difficult, but can be done.

Oh, well ...

Chris

-----Original Message----- 
From: Stephen Thorpe
Sent: Friday, May 17, 2013 9:05 PM
To: Doug Yanega ; taxacom at mailman.nhm.ku.edu
Subject: Re: [Taxacom] Type specimen

Actually, no! There can be no type series for Homo sapiens. Linnaeus split 
it up into named variants, which left no room for "typical" H. sapiens. No 
specimens qualify for type status. The availability of the name is 
unaffected, however ...

Stephen


________________________________
From: Doug Yanega <dyanega at ucr.edu>
To: "taxacom at mailman.nhm.ku.edu" <taxacom at mailman.nhm.ku.edu>
Sent: Saturday, 18 May 2013 12:50 PM
Subject: Re: [Taxacom] Type specimen


On 5/17/13 5:38 PM, Andy Mabbett wrote:
> Which is the type specimen for Homo sapiens?
> _______________________________________________
>
Linnaeus is the holotype by implied monotypy. ICZN Chapter 16, Art
72.4.1 states: "The type series of a nominal species-group taxon
consists of all the specimens included by the author in the new nominal
taxon (whether directly or by bibliographic reference)". The important
things are that it says (1) specimens, and (2) "included by" not
"examined by". Then see Article 72.4.1.1 - "For a nominal species or
subspecies established before 2000, any evidence, published or
unpublished, may be taken into account to determine what specimens
constitute the type series." and Article 73.1.2 - "If the nominal
species-group taxon is based on a single specimen, either so stated or
implied in the original publication, that specimen is the holotype fixed
by monotypy (see Recommendation 73F). If the taxon was established
before 2000 evidence derived from outside the work itself may be taken
into account [Art. 72.4.1.1] to help identify the specimen." Linnaeus
made no explicit mention of any specimens that would have been in
addition to his own person, so Art. 72.4.1.1 taken together with 73.1.2
(an implied single specimen) resolves the issue of /Homo sapiens/ as
having a holotype by monotypy.

There are no syntypes, and no neotypes, despite claims of such that
appear in the literature (some published before the modern version of
the Code).

-- 
Doug Yanega      Dept. of Entomology      Entomology Research Museum
Univ. of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0314    skype: dyanega
phone: (951) 827-4315 (disclaimer: opinions are mine, not UCR's)
              http://cache.ucr.edu/~heraty/yanega.html
  "There are some enterprises in which a careful disorderliness
        is the true method" - Herman Melville, Moby Dick, Chap. 82

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