[Taxacom] Viola bicolor status
jshuey at TNC.ORG
Fri Dec 18 10:21:31 CST 2015
I should reply to all that I have a pretty definitive answer now provided by several on the list serve. There apparently never should have been any question about the native status of this very distinct species. Thanks to everyone.
The back story is simple, we (TNC) are about 17 years into a very high-diversity restoration in NW Indiana designed to restored ecological connectivity between sand prairie remnants. To date, we have restored over 5,000 acres, and seeded in over 600 native species - the majority of which are well established in restoration plantings. We have included several species of Viola - but these are hard to collect for seed at a this scale. Hence they were planted in trace amounts and some patches were created by growing a few thousand plugs. If you really search you can find them scattered about, but at nothing approaching the densities you find on ecosystem remnants. The hope is that Viola populations increase with time, approaching an equilibrium close to that found on remnants. Probably well after I'm dead.
Viola bicolor, we considered to be non-native (17 years ago and counting), and we did nothing to encourage it. But as a "weedy annual pansy" it did quite well on its own spreading from ROWs and ditch embankments into the restoration. In the meantime, a population of a butterfly currently being reviewed for listing as federally endangered (Speyeria idalia) is obviously using it as a host plant. The population was transformed from a well-documented but precarious, 3-deme metapopulation at the site, into a robust, patchy population across the restoration. In 2014, it was the most common butterfly encountered at the site. More interestingly, we apparently created a regional mainland / island model. The butterfly is now back on sites across adjacent natural areas in Illinois (up to 8 miles from the original three demes - it was common in this area in the 70-s and early 80's, but was absent for almost 15 years prior to the restoration) and made a 25 mile jump to the east (with no detectable intervening populations).
So the question became, do we ensure that V. bicolor is in our seed mixes in the future, especially at isolated sand prairie restoration sites? It's easier to justify if it is native.
Please consider the environment before printing this email
John A Shuey, Ph.D.
Director of Conservation Science
jshuey at tnc.org
317.829.3898 - direct
317.951.8818 - front desk
317.917.2478 - Fax
The Nature Conservancy
Indiana Field Office
620 E. Ohio St.
Indianapolis, IN 46202
From: Taxacom [mailto:taxacom-bounces at mailman.nhm.ku.edu] On Behalf Of David Werier
Sent: Friday, December 18, 2015 10:51 AM
To: taxacom at mailman.nhm.ku.edu
Subject: Re: [Taxacom] Viola bicolor status
A couple papers in Rhodora, which you should be able to access via BHL are of interest.
These include the Clausen et al. paper: Clausen, J., R. B. Channell, and U. Nur. 1964. Viola rafinesquii, the only Melanium violet native to North America. Rhodora 66:32–46.
And a slightly older one: Shinners, L. H. 1961. Viola rafinesquii :
nomenclature and native status. Rhodora 63:327–335.
We have a couple of populations in New York that grow in isolated rocky summit communities at the very northeastern edge of their range. I treat them as native.
Botanical and Ecological Consultant
245 Eastman Hill Rd.
Willseyville, NY 13864
Nakita at lightlink.com
On 12/15/2015 10:39 PM, Kenneth Kinman wrote:
> Hi John, Yockteng et al., 2003 (page 154) say that Section Melanium contains one
> species that "is disjunct and probably native in
> North America (Clausen et al. 1964)." Unfortunately, bicolor doesn't seem to be included in that molecular study. It seems like everyone who believes V. bicolor is native to North America does so based mainly on the work of Clausen. but they continue to use the phrase "probably native". Anyway, the weblink below will take you to the paper by Yockteng et al., 2003:
>> From: jshuey at TNC.ORG
>> To: taxacom at mailman.nhm.ku.edu
>> Date: Tue, 15 Dec 2015 20:57:40 +0000
>> Subject: [Taxacom] Viola bicolor status
>> This species has historically been known as Viola rafinesquii and considered an exotic species in North America, but recently changed names and status to a native. As at TNCer, my ability to track down the rational for this change has been elusive (we're cheap as have access to low end literature resources!). Can anyone help me track down the basis of that change?
>> Please consider the environment before printing this email
>> John A Shuey, Ph.D.
>> Director of Conservation Science, Indiana Field Office
>> jshuey at tnc.org
>> 317.829.3898 - direct
>> 317.951.8818 - front desk
>> 317.917.2478 - Fax
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