[Taxacom] Order Homoptera probably not paraphyletic after all

Michael A. Ivie mivie at montana.edu
Tue Feb 24 14:16:10 CST 2015


The idea of sister-groups Homoptera and Hemiptera is not well supported, 
and this has been the case for decades.  Actually dating back to China 
in the 1920s.  North Americans resisted this fact for some reason, but 
has now come to understand it better. The analysis that Ken gleefully 
cites is good only in giving the answer he is looking for.  Really bad 
taxon sampling, showing little understanding of the issues with this 
group.  Best supported to date is a single linkage tree with the 
Homopterans the first 2 (or more depending on finding support for a 
monphylletic Auchenorrhyncha), the Coleorrhyncha next and then the 
Enicocephalomorphs and Dipiscoromorphs before the half-wing synapomorphy 
that holds the groups most dabblers consider to be Hemiptera together.

Mike

 From a teaching standpoint, the combined Order is far easier to explain 
to students using a phyllogenetic framework.
On 2/24/2015 12:44 PM, John Grehan wrote:
> I grew up with Hempitera as the order and Homoptera and Heteroptera as
> monophyletic suborders. Only when I transitioned to the northern hemisphere
> did I run into their ranking as orders. Looks like there are two options
> for ranking these groups.
>
> John Grehan
>
> On Tue, Feb 24, 2015 at 2:12 PM, Kenneth Kinman <kinman at hotmail.com> wrote:
>
>> Dear All,                                 Many entomologists today regard
>> Homoptera as paraphyletic, and therefore have dumped them in with the
>> Heteroptera into an expanded Hemiptera sensu lato.  I never have liked this
>> great expansion of Hemiptera to also include all the Homoptera, (and of
>> course, it is not necessary if one considers paraphyletic taxa as natural
>> and useful).                         In any case, a fairly recent paper
>> (published a little over 2 years ago) was published in PLOS ONE which
>> presents molecular evidence that Homoptera is probably holophyletic after
>> all, and a sister group to Heteroptera.  They show that most trees actually
>> show a holophyletic (strictly monophyletic) Homoptera, and that those few
>> trees showing a paraphyletic Homoptera are skewed due to long branch
>> attraction with outgroup taxa.                So for those of you who still
>> use Order Homoptera and Order Heteroptera, instead of a huge heterogenous
>> Order Hemiptera, I applaud you.  If Homoptera isn't paraphyletic, there is
>> no reason for the paraphyly haters to over split (or in this case overlump)
>> this perfectly good taxon.  Here's a weblink to the paper:
>> http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0048778
>>                     ------------------Cheers,
>>                        Ken
>> Kinman---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
>>
>>
>>
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-- 
__________________________________________________

Michael A. Ivie, Ph.D., F.R.E.S.

Montana Entomology Collection
Marsh Labs, Room 50
1911 West Lincoln Street
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Montana State University
Bozeman, MT 59717
USA

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