[Taxacom] Order Homoptera probably not paraphyletic after all

Stephen Thorpe stephen_thorpe at yahoo.co.nz
Tue Feb 24 16:20:02 CST 2015


Even if Homoptera and Heteroptera are both monophyletic (which I doubt), it would make more sense to rank them as suborders of Hemiptera again, rather than as separate orders, unless you think Thysanoptera renders them paraphyletic! At any rate, I am skeptical that cladistic analysis can resolve the relationships here, even with full taxon sampling.

Stephen

--------------------------------------------
On Wed, 25/2/15, Kenneth Kinman <kinman at hotmail.com> wrote:

 Subject: Re: [Taxacom] Order Homoptera probably not paraphyletic after all
 To: "taxacom at mailman.nhm.ku.edu" <taxacom at mailman.nhm.ku.edu>
 Received: Wednesday, 25 February, 2015, 11:08 AM
 
 Hi Mike,           
                     Oh, I agree that the
 Coleorrhyncha made Order Homoptera paraphyletic, and that it
 should be placed in Heteroptera as the basalmost group. 
 But it is a very small group (just one living family if I
 recall correctly), and I doubt that its inclusion would have
 changed the conclusions of the PLOS ONE paper.  
         Yes, it would definitely be nice to
 repeat their study with more complete sampling.  However, I
 strongly suspect that the long branch attraction problem
 that they have uncovered is real, and that more sampling
 would probably not make that much difference in their
 overall phylogeny (Homoptera and Heteroptera as sister
 groups).  Only time will tell.  In any case, I always
 thought having separate Orders Homoptera and Heteroptera was
 useful even when Homoptera was paraphyletic (before
 Coleorrhyncha was moved to Heteroptera).             
                           -----------Ken   
          
 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 > Date: Tue, 24 Feb 2015 13:16:10 -0700
 > From: mivie at montana.edu
 > To: taxacom at mailman.nhm.ku.edu
 > Subject: Re: [Taxacom] Order Homoptera
 probably not paraphyletic after all
 > 
 > The idea of sister-groups Homoptera and
 Hemiptera is not well supported, 
 > and
 this has been the case for decades.  Actually dating back
 to China 
 > in the 1920s.  North
 Americans resisted this fact for some reason, but 
 > has now come to understand it better. The
 analysis that Ken gleefully 
 > cites is
 good only in giving the answer he is looking for.  Really
 bad 
 > taxon sampling, showing little
 understanding of the issues with this 
 >
 group.  Best supported to date is a single linkage tree
 with the 
 > Homopterans the first 2 (or
 more depending on finding support for a 
 > monphylletic Auchenorrhyncha), the
 Coleorrhyncha next and then the 
 >
 Enicocephalomorphs and Dipiscoromorphs before the half-wing
 synapomorphy 
 > that holds the groups
 most dabblers consider to be Hemiptera together.
 > 
 > Mike
 > 
 >  From a teaching
 standpoint, the combined Order is far easier to explain 
 > to students using a phyllogenetic
 framework.
 > On 2/24/2015 12:44 PM, John
 Grehan wrote:
 > > I grew up with
 Hempitera as the order and Homoptera and Heteroptera as
 > > monophyletic suborders. Only when I
 transitioned to the northern hemisphere
 >
 > did I run into their ranking as orders. Looks like
 there are two options
 > > for ranking
 these groups.
 > >
 >
 > John Grehan
 > >
 > > On Tue, Feb 24, 2015 at 2:12 PM,
 Kenneth Kinman <kinman at hotmail.com>
 wrote:
 > >
 >
 >> Dear All,                           
      Many entomologists today regard
 > >> Homoptera as paraphyletic, and
 therefore have dumped them in with the
 >
 >> Heteroptera into an expanded Hemiptera sensu
 lato.  I never have liked this
 >
 >> great expansion of Hemiptera to also include all
 the Homoptera, (and of
 > >> course,
 it is not necessary if one considers paraphyletic taxa as
 natural
 > >> and useful).     
                    In any case, a fairly
 recent paper
 > >> (published a
 little over 2 years ago) was published in PLOS ONE which
 > >> presents molecular evidence that
 Homoptera is probably holophyletic after
 > >> all, and a sister group to
 Heteroptera.  They show that most trees actually
 > >> show a holophyletic (strictly
 monophyletic) Homoptera, and that those few
 > >> trees showing a paraphyletic
 Homoptera are skewed due to long branch
 >
 >> attraction with outgroup taxa.             
   So for those of you who still
 >
 >> use Order Homoptera and Order Heteroptera, instead
 of a huge heterogenous
 > >> Order
 Hemiptera, I applaud you.  If Homoptera isn't
 paraphyletic, there is
 > >> no
 reason for the paraphyly haters to over split (or in this
 case overlump)
 > >> this perfectly
 good taxon.  Here's a weblink to the paper:
 > >> http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0048778
 > >>                 
    ------------------Cheers,
 >
 >>                        Ken
 > >>
 Kinman---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 > >>
 > >>
 > >>
 > >>
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 > -- 
 >
 __________________________________________________
 > 
 > Michael A. Ivie,
 Ph.D., F.R.E.S.
 > 
 >
 Montana Entomology Collection
 > Marsh
 Labs, Room 50
 > 1911 West Lincoln
 Street
 > NW corner of Lincoln and
 S.19th
 > Montana State University
 > Bozeman, MT 59717
 >
 USA
 > 
 > (406)
 994-4610 (voice)
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 (FAX)
 > mivie at montana.edu
 >
 
 >
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 > 
 > Celebrating 28 years
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