[Taxacom] Citing Authors for Animals

Robin Leech releech at telus.net
Sat Oct 17 11:18:57 CDT 2015

Hi Mary, 

Let us assume your animal is a spider.  Usually, it is just the author's last name and year, occasionally the page, unless there are several 
authors with the same last name,  Here are some examples:

The original combination is Lycosa fumosa Emerton, 1894.

If you want to put in a bit more info, the page, then do it this way"
Lycosa fumoas Emerton, 1894: 421.

Since 1894, the specific epithet has been given to another genus name, 
transferred to a different family, then transferred back to the original 

So, today it is is this:
Melocosa fumosa (Emerton, 1894).

Or, more completely, 
Melocosa fumosa (Emerton, 1894:421).

Note that I have not put in the author's initials here.  They are "J.H." and 
they would be used in the REFERENCES, unless there are two or more authors with 
the same last name (e.g., Koch), in this case, the author's initials are used 
when citing the full name.  

For example, two people who worked on spiders who had the same last name are 
L. Koch and C.L. Koch. Here is species described by one of them.

Original combination:
Theridion grossum Koch, 1838: 112.  As L. Koch did not come onto the scene 
until 1866, there was no confusion about which author, so no initial was used.

Emerton transferred this name to the genus Teutana in 1911, with the result:
Teutana grossa.  

It has since been transferred to the genus Steatoda, and is presently:
Steatoda grossa (C.L. Koch, 1838: 112).

I hope this helps.  If there is still some confusion, please send me the 
paragraph you want to put the citation into. Also give a full citation for 
the animal - genus, specific epithet, author, year of publication, etc.


-----Original Message-----
From: Taxacom [mailto:taxacom-bounces at mailman.nhm.ku.edu] On Behalf Of Mary Barkworth
Sent: October-17-15 8:19 AM
To: (Taxacom at mailman.nhm.ku.edu)
Subject: [Taxacom] Citing Authors for Animals

I am a botanist but I need to import animals names with their appropriate authors to a database. I am using ITIS as a source. I really want to learn how to do this this weekend which is why I am asking here.
For this entry:


Penhallurick & C. R. Robson



Should a label for this taxon read
Somescientificname Penhallurick & C. R. Robson 2009

Would this be the standard format? Do zoologists just omit the taxonauthor for ranks above species?
Also, do zoologists now have only one infraspecific rank, subspecies? If not, what does one do when one has a trinomial with no indication of what the lowest rank is supposed to be?

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