[Taxacom] Science 24 Feb 2017 letter: Photos belong in taxonomic Code

Frank T. Krell Frank.Krell at dmns.org
Fri Feb 24 21:47:37 CST 2017


According to the Code, Art. 72.5. a type specimen must be a physical specimen or a part of it (with exceptions for fossils and ichnofossils):

“72.5. Eligibility as name-bearing types. Only the following are eligible to be a name-bearing type, or part of a name-bearing type, of a nominal species-group taxon:

72.5.1. an animal, or any part of an animal, or an example of the fossilized work of an animal, or of the work of an extant animal if the name based on it was established before 1931;

72.5.2. a colony of animals that exists in nature as a single entity, derived by asexual or vegetative multiplication from a single individual (e.g. a colony of cnidarians, such as corals), or part of such a colony;

72.5.3. in the case of fossils, a natural replacement, natural impression, natural mould, or natural cast of an animal or colony, or part of either;

72.5.4. in extant species of protistans, one or more preparations of directly related individuals representing differing stages in the life cycle (a hapantotype) [Art. 73.3<http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted-sites/iczn/code/index.jsp?nfv=true&article=73#3>];

72.5.5. a preparation for microscope examination (e.g. a "type slide") containing one or more individual organisms, in which the name-bearing types are clearly indicated and identifiable..

72.5.6. In the case of a nominal species-group taxon based on an illustration or description, or on a bibliographic reference to an illustration or description, the name-bearing type is the specimen or specimens illustrated or described (and not the illustration or description itself).”

So acoustic records, like photos or movies, cannot be types. The specimen in those recordings would be the type, whether preserved or not.

A sample of extracted DNA could be a type (probably not the best choice), but a sequence or a PCR product cannot be a type. It has to be a physical part of a specimen or the whole specimen.

Cheers

Frank

Dr. Frank-Thorsten Krell

Senior Curator of Entomology, Editor-in-Chief
Commissioner and Councillor, International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature
Department of Zoology
Denver Museum of Nature & Science
2001 Colorado Blvd
Denver, Colorado 80205-5798, U.S.A.
Frank.krell at dmns.org<mailto:Frank.krell at dmns.org>
Phone 303.370.8244
Fax 303.331.6492
http://www.dmns.org/krell-lab






From: igor pavlinov [mailto:ipvl2008 at mail.ru]
Sent: Thursday, February 23, 2017 9:52 PM
To: Frank T. Krell <Frank.Krell at dmns.org>
Cc: Taxacom Mailinglist <taxacom at mailman.nhm.ku.edu>; arsg at unicamp.br; John Grehan <calabar.john at gmail.com>
Subject: Re[2]: [Taxacom] Science 24 Feb 2017 letter: Photos belong in taxonomic Code

it seems to me that one thing is supplementing real specimens with its colored photos or movies to preserve their color patterns lost after preservation in museum collection. And different thing is the photos or movies of the specimens never delivered to museum collection, be they taken from alive or just lost specimens. Both these photos and movies are actually "virtual" specimens - but are they the same as the "real" ones with respect of the Code application in case of subsequent revisions?

This issue includes also some other points, for instance vocalization records. Can these be used as type specimens without standard vouchers?

Another point is voucherization of barcode sequences: are references to photos of respective animals or plants forbidden to be removed from nature (i.e. protected) enoughth to verify, upon a need, there taxonomic allocation?

Igor


- - -
Igor Ya. Pavlinov, DrS
Leading Researcher
Zoological Museum of Lomonosov Moscow State University
ul. Bol'shaya Nikitskaya 6
125009 Moscow
Russia
http://zmmu.msu.ru/personal/pavlinov/pavlinov_eng1.htm
Пятница, 24 февраля 2017, 7:07 +03:00 от "Frank T. Krell" <Frank.Krell at dmns.org<mailto:Frank.Krell at dmns.org>>:
Such letters are not reviewed, only edited.
Frank Krell

From: John Grehan [mailto:calabar.john at gmail.com]
Sent: Thursday, February 23, 2017 8:59 PM
To: Frank T. Krell <Frank.Krell at dmns.org<mailto:Frank.Krell at dmns.org>>
Cc: Dilrukshan Wijesinghe <dpwijesinghe at yahoo.com<mailto:dpwijesinghe at yahoo.com>>; Taxacom Mailinglist <taxacom at mailman.nhm.ku.edu<mailto:taxacom at mailman.nhm.ku.edu>>; arsg at unicamp.br<mailto:arsg at unicamp.br>
Subject: Re: [Taxacom] Science 24 Feb 2017 letter: Photos belong in taxonomic Code

So if the issue is that obvious why did the reviewers for such a 'prestigious' journal like Science miss that?

John Grehan

On Thu, Feb 23, 2017 at 10:41 PM, Frank T. Krell <Frank.Krell at dmns.org<mailto:Frank.Krell at dmns.org<mailto:Frank.Krell at dmns.org>>> wrote:
The authors of this letter write that the Code should allow photographs and movies to be eligible for designation as primary types. "This change would allow valid species descriptions [...] without violating the Code."

May I point out that describing new species on the basis of photographs or movies does *not* violate the Code. It is just that the specimens shown in those media are the types, not the photographs or movies themselves. In these cases the types are not preserved and, in most cases, are deemed to be lost. But this is still Code-compliant.

It may violate good taxonomic practice though - in Cases where types could have been preserved.

Please read the Code, people. There is definitely no revision of the Code needed to accommodate photo-based descriptions.
On the contrary, I would say that the Code should more strongly discourage descriptions without preserved type specimens when type specimens could easily be preserved and remain diagnostic in the preserved stage.

Frank


Dr. Frank-Thorsten Krell

Senior Curator of Entomology, Editor-in-Chief
Commissioner and Councillor, International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature
Department of Zoology
Denver Museum of Nature & Science
2001 Colorado Blvd
Denver, Colorado 80205-5798, U.S.A.
Frank.krell at dmns.org<mailto:Frank.krell at dmns.org<mailto:Frank.krell at dmns.org>>
Phone 303.370.8244<tel:303.370.8244>
Fax 303.331.6492<tel:303.331.6492>
http://www.dmns.org/krell-lab



-----Original Message-----
From: Taxacom [mailto:taxacom-bounces at mailman.nhm.ku.edu<mailto:taxacom-bounces at mailman.nhm.ku.edu<mailto:taxacom-bounces at mailman.nhm.ku.edu>>] On Behalf Of Dilrukshan Wijesinghe
Sent: Thursday, February 23, 2017 7:55 PM
To: Taxacom Mailinglist <taxacom at mailman.nhm.ku.edu<mailto:taxacom at mailman.nhm.ku.edu<mailto:taxacom at mailman.nhm.ku.edu>>>
Subject: [Taxacom] Science 24 Feb 2017 letter: Photos belong in taxonomic Code

There is a Letter by André Rinaldo Senna Garrafoni & André Victor Lucci Freitas in Science 24 February 2017 [Vol. 355, Issue 6327], p. 805, titled "Photos belong in taxonomic Code". The authors advocate the use of photos & movies to serve as types, especially for meiofaunal organisms (e.g. gastrotrichs), specimens of which lose diagnostic features after preservation.
Priyantha
 D. P. Wijesinghe
dpwijesinghe at yahoo.com<mailto:dpwijesinghe at yahoo.com<mailto:dpwijesinghe at yahoo.com>>
_______________________________________________
Taxacom Mailing List
Taxacom at mailman.nhm.ku.edu<mailto:Taxacom at mailman.nhm.ku.edu<mailto:Taxacom at mailman.nhm.ku.edu>>
http://mailman.nhm.ku.edu/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/taxacom
The Taxacom Archive back to 1992 may be searched at: http://taxacom.markmail.org


Nurturing Nuance while Assaulting Ambiguity for 30 Years, 1987-2017.
_______________________________________________
Taxacom Mailing List
Taxacom at mailman.nhm.ku.edu<mailto:Taxacom at mailman.nhm.ku.edu<mailto:Taxacom at mailman.nhm.ku.edu>>
http://mailman.nhm.ku.edu/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/taxacom
The Taxacom Archive back to 1992 may be searched at: http://taxacom.markmail.org


Nurturing Nuance while Assaulting Ambiguity for 30 Years, 1987-2017.

_______________________________________________
Taxacom Mailing List
Taxacom at mailman.nhm.ku.edu<mailto:Taxacom at mailman.nhm.ku.edu>
http://mailman.nhm.ku.edu/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/taxacom
The Taxacom Archive back to 1992 may be searched at: http://taxacom.markmail.org


Nurturing Nuance while Assaulting Ambiguity for 30 Years, 1987-2017.



More information about the Taxacom mailing list