[Taxacom] Taxacom Digest, Vol 130, Issue 16

Antonio López Almirall cycas at mnhnc.inf.cu
Sat Feb 25 12:17:27 CST 2017


I am not a specialist, but if I remember correctly there are some groups of 
green algae that only use skin types.
Dr. Antonio López Almirall
President of the Scientific Council
National Museum of Natural History of Cuba
cycas at mnhnc.inf.cu

-----Original Message-----
 From: "Antonio López Almirall" <cycas at mnhnc.inf.cu>
 To: taxacom at mailman.nhm.ku.edu, taxacom-request at mailman.nhm.ku.edu
 Date: Sat, 25 Feb 2017 13:14:23 -0500
 Subject: Re: Taxacom Digest, Vol 130, Issue 16


I am not a specialist, but if I remember correctly there are some groups of 
green algae that only use phototipes
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 From: taxacom-request at mailman.nhm.ku.edu
 To: taxacom at mailman.nhm.ku.edu
 Date: Sat, 25 Feb 2017 12:00:01 -0600
 Subject: Taxacom Digest, Vol 130, Issue 16


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 Today's Topics:

    1. Re: Science 24 Feb 2017 letter: Photos belong in taxonomic
       Code (Frank T. Krell)


 ----------------------------------------------------------------------

 Message: 1
 Date: Sat, 25 Feb 2017 03:47:37 +0000
 From: "Frank T. Krell" <Frank.Krell at dmns.org>
 To: igor pavlinov <ipvl2008 at mail.ru>
 Cc: Taxacom Mailinglist <taxacom at mailman.nhm.ku.edu>,
    "arsg at unicamp.br" <arsg at unicamp.br>
 Subject: Re: [Taxacom] Science 24 Feb 2017 letter: Photos belong in
    taxonomic Code
 Message-ID:
    
<CY4PR08MB24075B85B73D9A9175DBD23498550 at CY4PR08MB2407.namprd08.prod.outlook.com>
    
 Content-Type: text/plain; charset="utf-8"

 According to the Code, Art. 72.5. a type specimen must be a physical 
specimen or a part of it (with exceptions for fossils and ichnofossils):

 “72.5. Eligibility as name-bearing types. Only the following are eligible 
to be a name-bearing type, or part of a name-bearing type, of a nominal 
species-group taxon:

 72.5.1. an animal, or any part of an animal, or an example of the 
fossilized work of an animal, or of the work of an extant animal if the name 
based on it was established before 1931;

 72.5.2. a colony of animals that exists in nature as a single entity, 
derived by asexual or vegetative multiplication from a single individual 
(e.g. a colony of cnidarians, such as corals), or part of such a colony;

 72.5.3. in the case of fossils, a natural replacement, natural impression, 
natural mould, or natural cast of an animal or colony, or part of either;

 72.5.4. in extant species of protistans, one or more preparations of 
directly related individuals representing differing stages in the life cycle 
(a hapantotype) [Art. 
73.3<http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted-sites/iczn/code/index.jsp?nfv=true&article=73#3 
[http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted-sites/iczn/code/index.jsp?nfv=true&article=73#3] 
>];

 72.5.5. a preparation for microscope examination (e.g. a "type slide") 
containing one or more individual organisms, in which the name-bearing types 
are clearly indicated and identifiable..

 72.5.6. In the case of a nominal species-group taxon based on an 
illustration or description, or on a bibliographic reference to an 
illustration or description, the name-bearing type is the specimen or 
specimens illustrated or described (and not the illustration or description 
itself).”

 So acoustic records, like photos or movies, cannot be types. The specimen 
in those recordings would be the type, whether preserved or not.

 A sample of extracted DNA could be a type (probably not the best choice), 
but a sequence or a PCR product cannot be a type. It has to be a physical 
part of a specimen or the whole specimen.

 Cheers

 Frank

 Dr. Frank-Thorsten Krell

 Senior Curator of Entomology, Editor-in-Chief
 Commissioner and Councillor, International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature
 Department of Zoology
 Denver Museum of Nature & Science
 2001 Colorado Blvd
 Denver, Colorado 80205-5798, U.S.A.
 Frank.krell at dmns.org<mailto:Frank.krell at dmns.org>
 Phone 303.370.8244
 Fax 303.331.6492
 http://www.dmns.org/krell-lab [http://www.dmns.org/krell-lab]






 From: igor pavlinov [mailto:ipvl2008 at mail.ru]
 Sent: Thursday, February 23, 2017 9:52 PM
 To: Frank T. Krell <Frank.Krell at dmns.org>
 Cc: Taxacom Mailinglist <taxacom at mailman.nhm.ku.edu>; arsg at unicamp.br; John 
Grehan <calabar.john at gmail.com>
 Subject: Re[2]: [Taxacom] Science 24 Feb 2017 letter: Photos belong in 
taxonomic Code

 it seems to me that one thing is supplementing real specimens with its 
colored photos or movies to preserve their color patterns lost after 
preservation in museum collection. And different thing is the photos or 
movies of the specimens never delivered to museum collection, be they taken 
from alive or just lost specimens. Both these photos and movies are actually 
"virtual" specimens - but are they the same as the "real" ones with respect 
of the Code application in case of subsequent revisions?

 This issue includes also some other points, for instance vocalization 
records. Can these be used as type specimens without standard vouchers?

 Another point is voucherization of barcode sequences: are references to 
photos of respective animals or plants forbidden to be removed from nature 
(i.e. protected) enoughth to verify, upon a need, there taxonomic 
allocation?

 Igor


 - - -
 Igor Ya. Pavlinov, DrS
 Leading Researcher
 Zoological Museum of Lomonosov Moscow State University
 ul. Bol'shaya Nikitskaya 6
 125009 Moscow
 Russia
 http://zmmu.msu.ru/personal/pavlinov/pavlinov_eng1.htm 
[http://zmmu.msu.ru/personal/pavlinov/pavlinov_eng1.htm]
 Пятница, 24 февраля 2017, 7:07 +03:00 от "Frank T. Krell" 
<Frank.Krell at dmns.org<mailto:Frank.Krell at dmns.org>>:
 Such letters are not reviewed, only edited.
 Frank Krell

 From: John Grehan [mailto:calabar.john at gmail.com]
 Sent: Thursday, February 23, 2017 8:59 PM
 To: Frank T. Krell <Frank.Krell at dmns.org<mailto:Frank.Krell at dmns.org>>
 Cc: Dilrukshan Wijesinghe 
<dpwijesinghe at yahoo.com<mailto:dpwijesinghe at yahoo.com>>; Taxacom Mailinglist 
<taxacom at mailman.nhm.ku.edu<mailto:taxacom at mailman.nhm.ku.edu>>; 
arsg at unicamp.br<mailto:arsg at unicamp.br>
 Subject: Re: [Taxacom] Science 24 Feb 2017 letter: Photos belong in 
taxonomic Code

 So if the issue is that obvious why did the reviewers for such a 
'prestigious' journal like Science miss that?

 John Grehan

 On Thu, Feb 23, 2017 at 10:41 PM, Frank T. Krell 
<Frank.Krell at dmns.org<mailto:Frank.Krell at dmns.org<mailto:Frank.Krell at dmns.org>>> 
wrote:
 The authors of this letter write that the Code should allow photographs and 
movies to be eligible for designation as primary types. "This change would 
allow valid species descriptions [...] without violating the Code."

 May I point out that describing new species on the basis of photographs or 
movies does *not* violate the Code. It is just that the specimens shown in 
those media are the types, not the photographs or movies themselves. In 
these cases the types are not preserved and, in most cases, are deemed to be 
lost. But this is still Code-compliant.

 It may violate good taxonomic practice though - in Cases where types could 
have been preserved.

 Please read the Code, people. There is definitely no revision of the Code 
needed to accommodate photo-based descriptions.
 On the contrary, I would say that the Code should more strongly discourage 
descriptions without preserved type specimens when type specimens could 
easily be preserved and remain diagnostic in the preserved stage.

 Frank


 Dr. Frank-Thorsten Krell

 Senior Curator of Entomology, Editor-in-Chief
 Commissioner and Councillor, International Commission on Zoological 
Nomenclature
 Department of Zoology
 Denver Museum of Nature & Science
 2001 Colorado Blvd
 Denver, Colorado 80205-5798, U.S.A.
 
Frank.krell at dmns.org<mailto:Frank.krell at dmns.org<mailto:Frank.krell at dmns.org>>
 Phone 303.370.8244<tel:303.370.8244>
 Fax 303.331.6492<tel:303.331.6492>
 http://www.dmns.org/krell-lab [http://www.dmns.org/krell-lab]



 -----Original Message-----
 From: Taxacom 
[mailto:taxacom-bounces at mailman.nhm.ku.edu<mailto:taxacom-bounces at mailman.nhm.ku.edu<mailto:taxacom-bounces at mailman.nhm.ku.edu>>] 
On Behalf Of Dilrukshan Wijesinghe
 Sent: Thursday, February 23, 2017 7:55 PM
 To: Taxacom Mailinglist 
<taxacom at mailman.nhm.ku.edu<mailto:taxacom at mailman.nhm.ku.edu<mailto:taxacom at mailman.nhm.ku.edu>>>
 Subject: [Taxacom] Science 24 Feb 2017 letter: Photos belong in taxonomic 
Code

 There is a Letter by André Rinaldo Senna Garrafoni & André Victor Lucci 
Freitas in Science 24 February 2017 [Vol. 355, Issue 6327], p. 805, titled 
"Photos belong in taxonomic Code". The authors advocate the use of photos & 
movies to serve as types, especially for meiofaunal organisms (e.g. 
gastrotrichs), specimens of which lose diagnostic features after 
preservation.
 Priyantha
  D. P. Wijesinghe
 
dpwijesinghe at yahoo.com<mailto:dpwijesinghe at yahoo.com<mailto:dpwijesinghe at yahoo.com>>
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