[Taxacom] holotype designation

John Grehan calabar.john at gmail.com
Thu Mar 28 16:06:16 CDT 2019


Thanks again to everyone for the continued feedback. It seems that there
are contingencies for even the seemingly most simple questions, but glad to
have some clarity.

John Grehan

On Thu, Mar 28, 2019 at 4:56 PM Rosenberg,Gary <rosenberg.ansp at drexel.edu>
wrote:

> John,
>
>
>
> I consider the example from Tindale (1958) to be a holotype by monotypy.
> We can’t tell that Tindale meant “holotype” by “type, a male, unique”
> without reference to other species described in that work. If we broadened
> the meaning of “equivalent expression” to include such cases (where it is
> known that there was only a single type specimen), then there is no
> situation where Article 73.1.2 would apply.
>
>
>
> Best wishes,
>
> Gary
>
>
>
> *From:* John Grehan <calabar.john at gmail.com>
> *Sent:* Thursday, March 28, 2019 12:45 PM
> *To:* Rosenberg,Gary <rosenberg.ansp at drexel.edu>
> *Cc:* Francisco Welter-Schultes <fwelter at gwdg.de>; taxacom <
> taxacom at mailman.nhm.ku.edu>
> *Subject:* Re: [Taxacom] holotype designation
>
>
>
> Gary, your inference about Tindale is correct - although 1958 in this case
> and the context is the same as you gave. For example for E. salvazi the
> full quote(and placed in a separate paragraph) is "Loc. Laos: Thado, 6
> June, 1915, R. Vitalis de Salvaza (type a male, unique, in Cornell
> University Collection, lot 841)." So am I correct to understand that this
> is "by original designation" rather than "by monotypy"?
>
>
>
> John Grehan
>
>
>
> On Thu, Mar 28, 2019 at 11:59 AM Rosenberg,Gary <rosenberg.ansp at drexel.edu>
> wrote:
>
> Hi John,
>
>
>
> The governing text of the Code is in Article 73.
>
>
>
> 73.1.1. If an author when establishing a new nominal species-group taxon
> states in the original publication that one specimen, and only one, is the
> holotype, or "the type", or uses some equivalent expression, that specimen
> is the holotype fixed by original designation.
>
>
>
> 73.1.2. If the nominal species-group taxon is based on a single specimen,
> either so stated or implied in the original publication, that specimen is
> the holotype fixed by monotypy (see Recommendation 73F)....
>
>
>
> From the information provided, the specimen is the holotype, but one can't
> judge if it is holotype by monotypy or holotype by original designation,
> because we don't know the context. The author might have had an
> introductory section explaining his conventions. Elsewhere in the treatment
> he might have referred to the specimen as "the type" or mentioned
> paratypes, cotypes or an allotype, which would make it clear that "type'
> meant holotype in that particular case. (Referring in the original
> publication to "type and allotype" for a taxon fulfills the requirement of
> "equivalent expression" to holotype in Article 73.1.1.)
>
>
>
> If none of those avenues let us conclude that the specimen is the holotype
> by original designation, we are left to parse the phrase you quoted. We
> don't know what followed "unique". The implication is that the author meant
> "type, a male, unique specimen" but perhaps the text actually said
> something like "type, a male, unique in having red spots".  It seems that
> your example comes from Tindale (1941). In the description of *Endoclita
> albosignata*, he said “type, a male, unique l. 18942, in S. Aust. Museum”
> and in the description of *E. chrysoptera* he said “type, a male, unique,
> reared August 3, 1923 from * Machilus edulis* by J. C. M. Gardner; in
> British Musem”. The introduction to his paper does not states conventions
> about type terminology. In descriptions of other species he refers to
> “type”, “allotype” and “paratype” (e.g., *Endoclita gmelina*).
>
>
>
> These clearly meet the requirements for holotype by monotypy. The question
> is whether the knowledge that Tindale referred to “type” and “allotype” for
> other species described in the same paper means that all his uses of “type”
> in the paper indicate holotype by original designation. I would say no: as
> soon as we start using evidence across taxa in a paper, we are making
> inferences. I’ve done a lot of work on type status of material treated by
> Henry Pilsbry and he was sometimes not consistent with his terminology
> across species within a paper.
>
>
>
> Gary Rosenberg
>
> Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Drexel University
>
>
>
> -----Original Message-----
>
> From: Taxacom <taxacom-bounces at mailman.nhm.ku.edu> On Behalf Of John
> Grehan
>
> Sent: Wednesday, March 27, 2019 7:16 PM
>
> To: Francisco Welter-Schultes <fwelter at gwdg.de>
>
> Cc: taxacom <taxacom at mailman.nhm.ku.edu>
>
> Subject: Re: [Taxacom] holotype designation
>
>
>
> Caution: This message came from outside of Drexel. Do not click links or
> attachments unless you expected this email.
>
>
>
> thanks to everyone for the quick feedback. This is indeed a case where a
> single specimen was being described for the species - therefore 'unique'.
>
> So I gather that this is pretty good evidence that there is no evidence
> for any further specimens being involved and that the unique specimen can
> be referred to as a holotype.
>
>
>
> John Grehan
>
>
>
> On Wed, Mar 27, 2019 at 7:09 PM Francisco Welter-Schultes <fwelter at gwdg.de
> >
>
> wrote:
>
>
>
> > Relevant are Art. 74.5 and 74.6. For the type series, see Art. 72.4.1.
>
> >
>
> > Just saying "type" alone is not necessarily enough for meeting the
>
> > conditions to qualify for a holotype designation. If there is external
>
> > evidence that the author had more specimens at his or her disposal,
>
> > this type would be a syntype.
>
> > I did not really understand the meaning of "unique" in this context.
>
> > Maybe a little more information could help.
>
> >
>
> > Francisco
>
> >
>
> >
>
> > -----
>
> > Francisco Welter-Schultes
>
> >
>
> > Am 27.03.2019 um 23:46 schrieb John Grehan:
>
> > > I could probably figure this out from the rules of nomenclature, but
>
> > > perhaps someone will know off the cuff as I would like to be sure
>
> > > and
>
> > have
>
> > > the info quickly. If someone in 1958 states "type, a male,
>
> > > unique...…" is that sufficient for the specimen to be referred to as
>
> > > a holotype since it is clear that the type is represented by a single
> specimen?
>
> > >
>
> > > Thanks. John Grehan
>
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